Rsync Backup

You should run backups. The more backups the better. The more frequent the better. The more isolated the better.

The Setup

With just $150 and some spare desk space you can set up a backup server. Here’s an example setup:

The Backup

If you want a simple backup, you can just run an rsync one-liner:

rsync --progress -amzh $HOME rpi-host:$(date "+%F:%T")

(If you want to know more about what this line does, the rsync man page is very helpful.)

This is wasteful, however, because it copies files regardless of whether they have been modified since the last backup. Luckily this problem is easily ameliorated with the help of hard links and the --link-dest flag:

CURRENT=$(date "+%F:%T")
rsync --progress -amzh --delete \
    --link-dest=latest $HOME rpi-host:$CURRENT
ssh rpi-host << EOI
if [ -e $CURRENT ]
    # an alternative is to pass -f to ln
    [ -L latest ] && rm latest
    ln -s $CURRENT latest
    echo "[ERR] Failed to create link for backup $CURRENT"

This method is slightly more complicated: once we complete a backup we need to create a symbolic link to remember the root of the last backup, since we need to be able to tell rsync about it the next time around.

This script behaves much like the “Time Machine” in Mac OS X: backups will only allocate new inodes if a file is new or has been modified. This means you can run backups while only using a minimal amount of storage.

One caveat to this method is that even though a file may be “backed up” multiple times, if it does not change it is only truley backed up once. Each time the backup runs the same inode is referenced again. If something should go wrong with that file, it will effect every backup which references it. I mention this because there is no such thing as a free lunch: the incremental backup scheme saves space, but is arguably a less effective backup scheme.

No Excuses

It’s cheap and easy to set up a backup server that will be invaluable when you experience data loss. There are many nice features that could be added to this script (uniquely identifying backups per-host, excluding files via rsync’s --filter flag, etc.), but I’ll leave these as exercises to the reader.